5500 – 2200 BC
The beginning of the Neolithic Age marks a vital step in the history of mankind. This is mainly associated with three factors: the domestication of animals and cereals, the settled life of people, and the production of ceramics as well as a new stone working technology.
Permanently inhabited settlements clearly show that the pace of life has changed fundamentally. Human traces can be found and better understood than of earlier hunter-gatherers: pottery, polished stone axes and grinding stones are now found in large quantities.
People no longer were hunters and gatherers but farmers. On the one hand this made them more independent of their natural environment as they could create the basis for population growth through the domestication of animals and plants, and stockpiling. On the other hand, they themselves were now responsible for food production by means of crop cultivation and animal husbandry.
The beginning of farming and domestication especially must have been rather complicated and hard because the initial yields were very low.
Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, lentils, and peas were main suppliers of calories in the Neolithic. The cultivation of these crops was probably the decisive reason that man became sedentary.
1 opium poppy
3 linseed, flax
3 multi-rowed barley